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Chemistry: Structure and Properties (2nd Edition)

Chemistry: Structure and Properties (2nd Edition)

Author: Nivaldo J. Tro

Publisher: Pearson


Publish Date: January 19, 2017

ISBN-10: 0134293932

Pages: 1152

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

To the Student

In this book, I tell the story of chemistry, a field of science that has not only revolutionized how we live (think of drugs designed to cure diseases or fertilizers that help feed the world), but also helps us to understand virtually everything that happens all around us all the time. The core of the story is simple: Matter is composed of particles, and the structure of those particles determines the properties of matter. Although these two ideas may seem familiar to you as a twenty-first-century student, they were not so obvious as recently as 200 years ago. Yet, they are among the most powerful ideas in all of science. You need not look any further than the advances in biology over the last half-century to see how the particulate view of matter drives understanding. In the last 50 years, we have learned how all living things derive much of what they are from the particles (especially proteins and DNA) that compose them. I invite you to join the story as you read this book. Your part in its unfolding is yet to be determined, and I wish you the best as you start your journey.

To the Professor

First and foremost, thanks to all of you who adopted this book in its first edition. You made this book the market-leading atoms first book. I am grateful beyond words. Second, know that I have listened carefully to your feedback about the first edition. The changes you see in this edition are the direct result of your input, as well as my own experience using the book in my general chemistry courses. If you are a reviewer or have contacted me directly, you will likely see your suggestions reflected in the changes I have made. Thank you.

In spite of the changes in this edition, the goal of the text remains the same: to tell the story of chemistry in the most compelling way possible. This book grew out of the atoms-first movement in General Chemistry. In a practical sense, the main thrust of this movement is a reordering of topics so that atomic theory and bonding models come much earlier than in the traditional approach. A primary rationale for this approach is for students to understand the theory and framework behind the chemical “facts” they are learning. For example, in the traditional approach students learn early that magnesium atoms tend to form ions with a charge of 2+. They don’t understand why until much later (when they get to quantum theory). In contrast, in an atoms-first approach, students learn quantum theory first and understand immediately why magnesium atoms form ions with a charge of 2+. In this way, students see chemistry as a coherent picture and not just a jumble of disjointed facts.

From my perspective, the atoms-first approach is better understood— not in terms of topic order—but in terms of emphasis. Professors who teach with an atoms-first approach generally emphasize: (1) the particulate nature of matter and (2) the connection between the structure of atoms and molecules and their properties (or their function). The result of this emphasis is that the topic order is rearranged to make these connections earlier, stronger, and more often than the traditional approach. Consequently, I chose to name this book Chemistry: Structure and Properties, and have not included the phrase atoms-first in the title. From my perspective, the topic order grows out of the particulate emphasis, not the other way around. In addition, by making the relationship between structure and properties the emphasis of the book, I extend that emphasis beyond just the topic order in the first half of the book. For example, in the chapter on acids and bases, a more traditional approach puts the relationship between the structure of an acid and its acidity toward the end of the chapter, and many professors even skip this material. In this book, I cover this relationship early in the chapter, and I emphasize its importance in the continuing story of structure and properties. Similarly, in the chapter on free energy and thermodynamics, a traditional approach does not emphasize the relationship between molecular structure and entropy. In this book, however, I emphasize this relationship and use it to tell the overall story of entropy and its ultimate importance in determining the direction of chemical reactions. In this edition, I have also changed the topic order in the gases chapter, so that the particulate view inherent in kinetic molecular theory comes at the beginning of the chapter, followed by the gas laws and the rest of the chapter content. In this way, students can understand the gas laws and all that follows in terms of the particulate model.

Throughout the course of writing this book and in conversations with many of my colleagues, I have also come to realize that the atoms-first approach has some unique challenges. For example, how do you teach quantum theory and bonding (with topics like bond energies) when you have not covered thermochemistry? Or how do you find laboratory activities for the first few weeks if you have not covered chemical quantities and stoichiometry? I have sought to develop solutions to these challenges in this book. For example, I include a section on energy and its units in Chapter E, “Essentials: Units, Measurement, and Problem Solving.” This section introduces changes in energy and the concepts of exothermicity and endothermicity. These topics are therefore in place when you need them to discuss the energies of orbitals and spectroscopy in Chapter 2, “Periodic Properties of the Elements,” and bond energies in Chapter 5, “Chemical Bonding I: Drawing Lewis Structures and Determining Molecular Shapes.” Similarly, I introduce the mole concept in Chapter 1; this placement allows not only for a more even distribution of quantitative homework problems, but also for laboratory exercises that require use of the mole concept. In addition, because I strongly support the efforts of my colleagues at the Examinations Institute of the American Chemical Society, and because I have sat on several committees that write the ACS General Chemistry exam, I have ordered the chapters in this book so that they can be used with those exams in their present form. The end result is a table of contents that emphasizes structure and properties, while still maintaining the overall traditional division of first- and second-semester topics. Some of the most exciting changes and additions to this edition are in the media associated with the book. To enhance student engagement in your chemistry course, I have added approximately 37 new Key Concept Videos and 50 new Interactive Worked Examples to the media package, which now contains over 150 interactive videos. There is a more detailed description of these videos in the following section entitled “New to This Edition.” In my courses, I employ readings from the book and these videos to implement a before, during, after strategy for my students. My goal is to engage students in active learning before class, during class, and after class. Recent research has conclusively demonstrated that students learn better when they are active as opposed to passively listening and simply taking in content.

a key concept video before each class session. Reading sections from the text in conjunction with viewing the video introduces students to a key concept for that day and gets them thinking about it before they come to class. Since the videos and the book are so closely linked, students get a seamless presentation of the content. During class, I expand on the concept and use Learning Catalytics™ in MasteringChemistry™ to question my students. Instead of passively listening to a lecture, they interact with the concepts through questions that I pose. Sometimes I ask my students to answer individually, other times in pairs or even groups. This approach has changed my classroom. Students engage in the material in new ways. They have to think, process, and interact. After class, I give them another assignment, often an Interactive Worked Example with a follow-up question. They put their new skills to work in solving this assignment. Finally, I assign a weekly problem set in which they have to apply all that they have learned to solve a variety of end-of-chapter problems. The results have been fantastic. Instead of just starting to learn the material the night before a problem set is due, my students are engaged in chemistry before, during, and after class. I have seen evidence of their improved learning through increases in their scores on the American Chemical Society Standard General Chemistry Exam, which I always administer as the final exam for my course.

For those of you who have used my other general chemistry book (Chemistry: A Molecular Approach), you will find that this book is a bit shorter and more focused and streamlined than that one. I have shortened some chapters, divided others in half, and completely eliminated three chapters (“Biochemistry,” “Chemistry of the Nonmetals,” and “Metals and Metallurgy”). These topics are simply not being taught much in many general chemistry courses. Chemistry: Structures and Properties is a leaner and more efficient book that fits well with current trends that emphasize depth over breadth. Nonetheless, the main features that have made Chemistry: A Molecular Approach a success continue in this book. For example, strong problem-solving pedagogy, clear and concise writing, mathematical and chemical rigor, and dynamic art are all vital components of this book.


E Essentials: Units, Measurement, and Problem Solving 3
1 Atoms 35
2 The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom 75
3 Periodic Properties of the Elements 113
4 Molecules and Compounds 159
5 Chemical Bonding I 205
6 Chemical Bonding II 251
7 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Quantities 287
8 Introduction to Solutions and Aqueous Reactions 319
9 Thermochemistry 367
10 Gases 415
11 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces 463
12 Crystalline Solids and Modern Materials 505
13 Solutions 539
14 Chemical Kinetics 585
15 Chemical Equilibrium 639
16 Acids and Bases 685
17 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium 739
18 Free Energy and Thermodynamics 797
19 Electrochemistry 845
20 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry 893
21 Organic Chemistry 935
22 Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds 985
Appendix I Common Mathematical Operations in Chemistry A-1
Appendix II Useful Data A-7
Appendix III Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problems A-19
Appendix VI Answers to In-Chapter Practice Problems A-53
Glossary G-1
Credits C-1
Index I-1

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